Guava Growing: Ecological requirements, Production of planting materials, Field planting, Training and Pruning, Harvesting

Ecological requirements

  • WZ, DZ and IZ areas of up to 1500-2000m elevation.
  • 1000-4000mm annual rainfall.
  • Temperature : 230-280 C ( can tolerate temperatures as high as 450 C )
  • Warm and wet weather favors in flowering.
  • Flowering is affected in heavy rain periods.
  • Soil- adapted to wide range of soil. pH -4.5- 9.0
  • Well drained organic matter rich sandy to clay loam soil.
  • Slight tolerance to salinity & water logging.
  • Tolerant to drought.

Production of planting materials

  • Grafted plants are used in commercial cultivations.
  • Extra seeds from well ripen fruits and dry them in a shady place.
  • Saw seeds in a sand nursery.
  • Germination takes place 2-3 weeks.
  • Transfer the seedlings of 4cm, into poly bags of 15cm in height (plotting mixture of 1:1:2 top soil: sand: cow dung.
  • Then transfer to poly bags of 25cm height.
  • Grafting can be done after 5-7 months (stem thickness of 1cm).

Field planting

  • Spacing 5-6m – 5-6m.
  • Planting hole – 60*60*60cm.
  • 2 weeks prior to planting fill the planting hole using top soil and cow dung or compost.
  • Add basal fertilizer in 2-3 days prior to planting.
  • Supply shade during first 2 weeks of establishment.
  • Practice watering until plant is established at the field and do weeding around the plant base.
  • Mulches also can apply to control weeds.

Training and Pruning

  • Main erect trunk of the young plant is cut back to about 60cm – 75 cm above the ground and allows 3 or 4 lateral shoot.
  • These laterals are allowed to develop to about 25-30 cm long and then pruned, to form secondary branches which will carry most of the fruits.
  • Pruning is done time to time on water shoots and suckers arising from the base of the rootstocks.
  • Guava Plants are maintained at height of 1.8- 3m.

Harvesting

  • Bearing commence in seedlings – 2 years after planting.
  • Grafted plants – 1.5 years after planting.
  • Flowers born in leaf axils, perfect flowers 4-5 petals and many stamens.
  • Flower opens 5-7 am self and cross pollinated.
  • Pollination by bees.
  • 120- 150 days from flowering to harvesting of fruits.
  • Fruits – many seeded berry.
  • Thing out the excessive fruits leaving 1-2 fruits per bunch.
  • At harvesting fruits color turns from deep green color into yellowish green color.
  • Yield from well managed grafted plant after 6-8 years, 40-50kg/year.

 

 

Guava Flowers
Guava Fruits

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